Some Form of Islamic Ṣūfīsm in Indonesia

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Since the 12th century, ūfīsm has developed very rapidly, not only accepted with open arms by the public, but more than that, he began to dominate the religious life of both the majority of Muslims (Sunnī) and minority (Shī`ite). The impact of continuity, appear interested groups ūfīsm, each of which has teachers and methods (arīqa) in the nomenclature of its own mysticism known as "orders" or "ūfī order" (the ūfī arīqah). The number of congregations are spread dozens, hundreds, perhaps thousands are spread around the Islamic world, namely from West Africa to Southeast Asia.[1] 

1.   Qādiriyya arīqa
The Qādiriyya [2] arīqa spread to Indonesia in the 16th century, especially in Java, such as in boarding Pegentongan Bogor West Java, Suryalaya Tasikmalaya in West Java, Mranggen Central Java, Rejoso Jombang, East Java and Pesantren Tebuireng Jombang in East Java. Shaykh Abdul Karim from Banten is the beloved disciple of Shaykh Khatib Sambas, who settled in Mecca, is the most meritorious scholars in the dissemination of Qādiriyya arīqa. Sambas disciples who came from Java and Madura, after returning to Indonesia became the propagator of the Qādiriyya Order.

2.   Syaṭṭārī arīqa
Syaṭṭārī arīqa first appeared in India in the 15th century. These congregations ascribed to figure credited with popularizing and developing it, ˊAbd al-Syaṭṭār[3]. Initially this congregation better known in Iran and Transoksania (Central Asia) with Isyqiyah name. While in the territory of the Ottoman Empire, the orders are called Bīstamiyāh. [4]
After the death of ˊAbd al-Syaṭṭār, Syaṭṭārī arīqa disseminated by his disciples, especially Muammad A'la, from Bengali, known as Qazān Syaṭṭārī. And students who were most responsible for developing and making the Syaṭṭārī arīqa as a stand-alone congregation is Muammad Ghāus of Gwalior (d. 1562), the fourth descendant of the founder. Muammad Ghāus built Ghāustiyyāh, Syaṭṭārī branch, which uses yoga practices. One of his successor Shah Wajh al-Dīn (d. 1609), guardian of the highly respected in Gujarat, was a prolific book writer and founder of the madrassa that was long. Until the end of the 16th century, this congregation has had a wide influence in India. From this region the Syaṭṭārī  arīqa continue to spread to Mecca, Medina, and even to Indonesia.
The tradition of congregations who breathes India was brought to the Holy Land by a prominent ūfī leader, Sibghat bin Ruh (d. 1606), one of the students Shah Wajh al-Dīn, and founded the shrine in Medina. Shaykh was not just teach the Order Syaṭṭārī, but also a number of other orders, call for example the Naqshabandiyya arīqa. Then the Order is disseminated and popularized to other ˊArab-speaking world by his principal disciple, Amad Syīmnawī (d. 1619). So also by one Caliph, who then appeared to hold the helm orders, a teacher from Palestine, Amad al-Qusyāsyī (d. 1661).
After Amad al-Qusyāsyī died, ‘Ibrāhīm  al-Kurānī (d. 1689), Turkish, appear to succeed him as supreme leader and advocate of the Syaṭṭārī  arīqa quite famous in the Medina area. Two of the latter in the above, Amad al-Qusyāsyī  and ‘Ibrāhīm  al-Kurānī, is a teacher of ˊAbd al-Ra’ūf Singkel which then successfully develop Syaṭṭārī arīqa in Indonesia. But before ˊAbd al-Ra’ūf. There has been a prominent ūfī who declared Syaṭṭārī responsible for developing doctrine in the archipelago through his book Tuhfāt al-Mursalat ilā al-Rūh of the Prophet, a relatively short work of wahdāt al-wujūd. He is Muammad ibn al-Burhānpūri Fadl (d. 1620), also one of the students Wajh al-Dīn. His book, Tuhfāt al-Mursalāt, which describes the metaphysical dignity of seven is more popular in the archipelago than the work of Ibn ˊArabī.
Martin van Bruinessen suspect that the possibility for a variety of interesting ideas from this book that integrates with the Syaṭṭārī arīqa, so that later students from Indonesia who studied the al-Qusyāsyī and Al-Kurānī more like this arīqa than other congregations that are taught by two teachers them. This book was later quoted also by Shams al-Dīn Sumatrani (d. 1630) in his review of the Seven Dignity (Martabat Tujuh), although there was no evidence or sources that explain about whether Shamsuddin embrace this congregation. But clearly, not long after his death, the Syaṭṭārī Order very popular among Indonesian people returning from ˊArabīc land.[5]
ˊAbd al-Ra’ūf himself who later joined in coloring the history of Islamic mysticism in Indonesia in the 17th century, using the opportunity to ūfīsm study, especially when conducting Hajj in the year 1643. He settled in Saudi ˊArabīa for 19th years and studied the various religious leaders and renowned experts congregation. After Amad Qusyāsyī died, he returned to Acheh and develop his arīqa. Fame quickly spread outside the territory of Acheh, through his disciples who spread the congregation was carrying. Among other things, for example, in West Sumatra was developed by students of Pesantren Shaykh Burhān al-Dīn Ulakan; in West Java, Kuningan area to Tasikmalaya, by ˊAbd Muhyī. From West Java, the orders are then spread to Central Java and East Java. In South Sulawesi, spread by one of the characters are pretty well known ūfī Syaṭṭārī and also a direct disciple of ‘Ibrāhīm  al-Kurānī, Yūsuf Tājūl al-Khalwatī (1629-1699).
3.   Naqshabandiyya arīqa
The wordNaqshabandiyya” نقشبندی derived from the ˊArabīc language Murākab Binā-i with two sentence naqsh and band it means carve the name of God in hearts, or taken from the name of its founder Muammad Baha al-Dīn Naqshband al-Bukhari al-Uwaisi[6]. Some people translate the word as an "image maker", "ornament maker", and the band means "bond" which shows the bond between man and his Creator.[7] Therefore, the main essence of the Order is to invite Naqshabandiyya followers (the disciples), male or female, to perform prayers and perform the things which must follow the Qur’ān and as-Sunnah of the Prophet, and the lives of friends along with the nature of Ihsan. To continue mujahadah and could feel God's presence and feelings of love to God in the hearts of the disciples did and make bond relation between the servant with the Creator.
In Naqshabandiyya, his spiritual lineage to the Prophet Muammad pbuh, is the Caliphs Abū Bakr ra, while most other congregations genealogy through the Sayyīdinā Ali bin Abū Thālib r.a.[8] In the development and spreading in this country, congregations Naqshabandiyya had barely subsided. It is caused by several factors, among others, movements and political reform. Shaykh Yūsuf al-Makassari (1626-1699) is the first person to introduce the congregation Naqshabandiyya in the archipelago. As mentioned in his book, Safīnāh al-Najāh, he received a diploma from Shaykh Muammad 'Abd. Al-Baqī  in Yemen and then study the congregation when he was in Madina under the guidance of Shaykh ‘Ibrāhīm  al-Kurānī. Shaykh Yūsuf comes from the Islamic Kingdom Goa, South Sulawesi, and he has blood ties with the royal family in the area. In the relatively young age he went to Yemen continued to Mecca and Medina which is then brought back to Indonesia. He did not immediately return to homes because of the political situation and settled in Banten, West Java, until he married the daughter of the Sultan of Banten and become a speak out Shaykh and very influential.[9]
The basic of teachings Naqshabandiyya generally refers to the four main aspects: Sharīˊa, arīqa, Nature and Ma'rīfah. Naqshabandiyya in principle is the ways or roads should be done by someone who wants to enjoy close to God. Subjects who appear to have good surface and is seclusion or seclusion rules.


[1]Accordingly, orders have suffered a metamorphosis than just a community of spiritual practice, a social organization that endeavors to meet the needs of life-many of its members. Than just a local association, was transformed into an international network. As for large orders-orders that spread to Indonesia, among others, is the Qadriyah, Syaṭṭtārī, and Naqsyabandiah. Further description can be found at: Simak
Baca secara fonetik
Amsal Bakhtiar, Taawwuf dan Gerakan Tarekat, (1th Ed.; Bandung: Angkasa, 2003), p.65.
[2]Founded by Syeikh Abd Qādir  Jīlānī (D 561 H/1166M) the full name is  Muhy al-Dīn Abu Muammad Abd Qādir ibn Abi Shalih Zango Dost al-Jaelani. Born in Jilan tahun 470 H/1077 M and die in Baghdad in 561 H/1166 M. Further more can be seen in: http://ūfīmuda.wordpress. com/2008/10/06/tarekat-qadiriyah/.
[3]Only a little knowed about ˊAbd al-Syaṭṭār. He is a descendant Syihab al-Dīn  Suhrāwārdī. Most likely he was born in one place in the vicinity of Bukhara. Here also he was officially ordained into the member Isyqiyah Order by his teacher, Muammad Arif. Further description can be found at: Tarekat Syaṭṭtārī , http://blogboleh.com/massiimmaa/56766.
[4]Ibid.
[5]Sri Mulyati, ūfīsm in Indonesia: An Analysis of Nawawi al-Banteni’s Salalim al-Fudala, a Thesis, Institute of Islamic Studies McGill University Montreal P.Q. Canada. p.20.
[6]Muammad Bahā al-Dīn Naqshband Al-Bukharī Al-Uwaisī, was born in Muharram 717 AH /1317 AD is the same in the 8th century Hijrah in conjunction with the 14th century in Qasrul 'Arifan village near Bukhara. Further description can be found at: http://id.wikipedia.org/w/index. php?title=Tarekat_ Naqsyabandiyah.
[7]Ibid.

[8]LiadewiSriyanti,SejarahTarekatNaqsyabandiyah,http://kagakuliadewi.blogspot.com/2010/07/sejarah-tarekat-naqsyabandiyah.html.

[9]Ibid.

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